See the bottom of each page for copyright information. The sanctuary roof and courtyard porticos are supported by repurposed Roman and Byzantine columns and capitals. Okba Ben Nafi is credited with converting Kairouan to Islam and founding its Great Mosque in 670. Some content is licensed under a Creative Commons license, and other content is completely copyright-protected. The Great Mosque isn't close to anything in particular, but it's rich history and unique architecture are worth the long drive. Because a ruler’s legitimacy could rest upon the mention of his name during the sermon, the minbar served both religious and secular purposes. Kairouan Tourism; Kairouan Hotels; Bed and Breakfast Kairouan Individual pages signify the copyright for the content on that page. The side of the minbar closest to the mihrab is composed of elaborately carved latticework with vegetal, floral, and geometric designs evocative of those used in Byzantine and Umayyad architecture. The minaret dates from the early ninth century, or at least its lower portion does. April 23, 2015. The Great Mosque of Kairouan (Arabic: جامع القيروان الأكبر ‎), also known as the Mosque of Uqba (جامع عقبة بن نافع), is a mosque situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan, Tunisia and is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa.. The lower portion of the mihrab is decorated with openwork marble panels in floral and geometric vine designs. ... Why does it look like it was built in the 19th century even though it was built in the 8th century? As it was placed just off the mihrab axis, it also affirmed the mihrab’s importance. The Great Mosque was literally and figuratively at the center of Kairouan activity, growth, and prestige. Date of Monument: Hegira 221 / AD 836. 1. The Aghlabids (800-909 C.E.) As a Friday Mosque, it was one of if not the largest buildings in town. Originally built by Sīdī ʿUqbah in the 7th century, the present mosque is the fifth mosque built on the site and dates from Aghlabid times. Soon after this mosque, Charlemagne built his palace at Aachen. Though the mosque is now near the northwest city ramparts established in the eleventh century, when Sidi Okba founded Kairouan, it was probably closer to the center of town, near what was the governor’s residence and the main thoroughfare, a symbolically prominent and physical visible part of the city. The stone dome is constructed of twenty four ribs that each have a small corbel at their base, so the dome looks like a cut cantaloupe, according to the architectural historian K. A. C. Creswell. Every city in Tunisia has a Great Mosque, but the Great Mosque in Kairouan is the most important of all. Kairouan: Mosque, University, Libraries. The mosque, as it stands today, was builtby Ziyadat … …acres [30 hectares]) contains the Great Mosque, with a 115-foot- (35-metre-) high minaret. Please sign and date your posts by typing four tildes ( ~~~~). …in North Africa is at Kairouan, Tunisia. Kairouan: The Sidi Amor Abada Museum The Raqqada National Museum of Islamic art The Great Mosque of Kairouan The Sidi Abid al-Ghariani Mausoleum The Aghlabid basins: From 16/09 to 31/05 : 08.00 - 14.00 From 01/06 to 15/09 : 07.30 - 14.00 From 17/06 to 17/07 : Horaire Ramadan 8:00-14:00: 12 Dt : Grouped ticket. The Great Mosque of Uqba. It is said to be the oldest surviving wooden minbar. It required battling Byzantines; convincing Berbers, the indigenous people of North Africa, to accept centralized Muslim rule; and persuading Middle Eastern merchants to move to North Africa. This is not a forum for general discussion of the article's subject. Shortly thereafter, Kairouan became the religious center and capital of Tunisia. Enter your email address to receive notifications of new posts by email. The Great Mosque had fifteen thoroughfares leading from it into a city that may have had a circular layout like Baghdad, the capital of the Islamic empire during Kairouan’s heyday. This is the talk page for discussing improvements to the Great Mosque of Kairouan article. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The Mosque has Aghlabid architecture and appears as a fortress on a hill. During the eighth century, Sidi Okba’s mosque was rebuilt at least twice as Kairouan prospered. The modern building is the product of centuries of development, with its oldest parts dating to a 16th century Ottoman renovation. The mosque was a critical addition, communicating that Kairouan would become a cosmopolitan metropolis under strong Muslim control, an important distinction at this time and place. A Zirid, al-Mu‘izz ibn Badis (ruled 1016-62 CE), commissioned a wooden maqsura, an enclosed space within a mosque that was reserved for the ruler and his associates. This is the least expensive place to buy them. Since it was used for Friday prayer, the mosque has a ninth-century minbar, a narrow wooden pulpit where the weekly sermon was delivered. The dome emphasizes the placement of the mihrab, or prayer niche (below), which is on the same central axis and also under a cupola to signify its importance. By the mid-tenth century, Kairouan became a thriving settlement with marketplaces, agriculture imported from surrounding towns, cisterns supplying water, and textile and ceramic manufacturing areas. They remove a ruler from the rest of the worshippers. Today, the enclosure of the Great Mosque of Kairouan is pierced by nine gates (six opening on the courtyard, two opening on the prayer hall and a ninth allows access to the maqsura) some of them, such as Bab Al-Ma (gate of water) located on the western façade, are preceded by salient porches flanked by buttresses and surmounted by ribbed domes based on square tholobate which are porting squinches with three vaults. Founder:-Kairouan flourished under the Aghlabid dynasty in the9th century. Carved stone panels inside the mosque and on the exterior acted like billboards advertising which patron was responsible for construction and restoration. Patron(s): Ziyadat Allah I. The Great Mosque was literally and figuratively at the center of Kairouan activity, growth, and prestige. If there is any building that is venerated and treated with so much reverence in Islam, it is the mosque. Also known as the Mosque of Sidi Ukba, Al-Qayrawan (1) Mosque was built by the first Muslims to arrive in Tunisia and North Africa under the leadership of Uqba Ibn Nafi in 670 CE. Seventh-century North Africa was not the easiest place to establish a new city. Around the mihrab are lustre tiles from Iraq. In Kairouan the Great Mosque was built in stages between 836 and 866. They also feature stylized floral patterns like Byzantine and eastern Islamic examples. Like Christian pulpits, the minbar made the prayer leader more visible and audible. STUDY. Even today, the Great Mosque of Kairouan reflects the time and place in which it was built. The mosque was the first building to be erected in the town (2), a … The minbar is made from teak imported from Asia, an expensive material exemplifying Kairouan’s commercial reach. Introduction:-The Mosque of Uqba also known as the Great Mosque ofKairouan, is an early example of a hypostyle mosquethat also reflects how pre-Islamic and eastern Islamicart and motifs were incorporated into the religiousarchitecture of Islamic North Africa. The drum rests on squinches, small arches decorated with shell over rosette designs similar to examples in Roman, Byzantine, and Umayyad Islamic art. The Aghlabids constructed the Great Mosque and established a university in it which catered to both Islamic scholarship and the secular sciences. The Islamic governors of Tunisia built the Great Mosque at Kairouan in the 800s AD, in the time of the Abbasid Empire. The mosque communicated that Kairouan would become a cosmopolitan metropolis under strong Muslim control, an important distinction at this time and place. It was built twice. Great Mosque of Kairouan built in 670 AD is one of the most important mosques in Tunisia, 開羅安回教第四個聖城 The aesthetics signified the Great Mosque and Kairouan, and, thus, its patrons, were just as important as the religious structures, cities, and rulers of other empires in this region, and that Kairouan was part of the burgeoning Islamic empire. Originally published by Smarthistory, 09.23.2016, under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license. But the mosque at Kairouan was much grander than anything being built in Northern Europe at this time When the Great Mosque of Uqba came into view, it was immediately obvious why the structure—built by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670 AD—is considered one of the most … Kairouan Great Mosque. In the thirteenth century, the Hafsids gave the mosque a more fortified look when they added buttresses to support falling exterior walls, a practice continued in later centuries. Be sure to bring a bunch of cash if you're interested in purchasing Tunisian rugs- they are handmade, traditional crafts of the area and are stunningly beautiful. History: The Great Mosque at Kairouan inherited the site of the first Muslim oratory in the Maghreb, which was built by … At Córdoba the earliest…. If you are travelling to Tunisia for religion and culture, don’t miss the Kairouan great Mosque, which is the oldest Mosque in North Africa. See "Terms of Service" link for more information. Great Mosque of Mecca, mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, built to enclose the Ka‘bah, the holiest shrine in Islam. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Images of the mosque from Manar Al-Athar (University of Oxford), The Art and Architecture of Islam 1250-1800, A Short Account of Early Muslim Architecture, Castles of God: Fortified Religious Buildings of the World, Islamic Architecture: form, function, and meaning, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International, A 16th-Century Parisian Surgical Dynasty and Their Books, Christmas at the White House with Winston Churchill, How Washington Irving Shaped Christmas in America, Ghosts in ‘A Christmas Carol’: Comical, Grotesque, Allegorical, An English Christmas with Victorian Plum Pudding, Sugar, Spice, and Christmas with Samuel Pepys in the Early Modern World. The Great Mosque of Kairouan is recognized as one of the most significant religious places in Islam. Answering these quiz and worksheet questions on the Great Mosque of Kairouan requires you to be familiar with architectural elements of the mosque and a collection it contains. 8 The Great Mosque of Kairouan. The prayer hall or sanctuary is supported by rows of columns and there is an open courtyard, that are characteristic of a hypostyle plan. Period / Dynasty: Umayyad, Abbasid. Great Mosque of Kairouan or the Mosque of Uqba is a mosque loacted in the historic town of Kairouan, Tunisia. In Kairouan the Great Mosque was built in stages between 836 and 866. Be sure to bring a bunch of cash if you're interested in purchasing Tunisian rugs- they are handmade, traditional crafts of the area and are stunningly beautiful. The Great Mosque was literally and figuratively at the center of Kairouan activity, growth, and prestige. The history of the Great Mosque of Kairouan: In 670 in Kairouan was built the first mosque, to North Africa of Muslim Arabs shortly after the arrival. HISTORY The great mosque of Kairouan was built under the provinces of Ifriqiya, which the Arab annexed in AD 670, at which time they founded the city of Kairouan. As this is the place where we worship Almighty Allah (SWT), it is understandable that we attach so much importance to a mosque. The mihrab wall of Kairouan’s Great Mosque, for example, was covered with ceramics, whereas fragments of decorative woodwork have been preserved in Jerusalem and Egypt. The dome is an architectural element borrowed from Roman and Byzantine architecture. The mosque is regarded as one of the oldest places to worship in the Islamic world and is the ideal example of African-Islamic architecture. The mosque was originally a hypostyle mosque, however it was mostly torn down and rebuilt in 863 AD by Prince Ziyadat Allah I. Other architectural elements link the Great Mosque of Kairouan with earlier and contemporary Islamic religious structures and pre-Islamic buildings. were the semi-independent rulers of much of North Africa. It can also be referred to as Mosque of Uqba Ibn Nafi, in honor of its original founder. The mosque has great importance historically because it is the first mosque in the first Muslim town in the West. https://www.britannica.com/place/Great-Mosque-of-Kairouan. In 836, Prince Ziyadat Allah I tore down most of the earlier mudbrick structure and rebuilt it in more permanent stone, brick, and wood. PLAY. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Kairouan - Discover Great Mosque of Kairouan and live the real experience with the Green Michelin Guide - find useful information and opening times - Great Mosque of Kairouan Huge ochre-coloured walls surround the Great Mosque, which was built in the 7C and is considered to be one of the oldest in the Maghreb. Richard Ettinghausen, Oleg Grabar, Marilyn Jenkins-Madina. By the mid-tenth century, Kairouan became a thriving settlement with marketplaces, agriculture imported from … Brewminate uses Infolinks and is an Amazon Associate with links to items available there. Like other hypostyle mosques, such as the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina, the mosque of Kairouan is roughly rectangular. Our logo, banner, and trademark are registered and fully copyright protected (not subject to Creative Commons). In 863 by the Emir Abou Ibrahim Ahmad was built the current mosque. However, the mosque we see today is essentially ninth century. It was built by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670 AD and it is one of the oldest places of worship in the Islamic world, as well as a model for all later mosques in the Maghreb. Restored starting in 1962, the mosque is considered one of the most prestigious religious monuments in the country. They also built palaces, libraries, gardens and waterworks which enthralled visitors. Additional gates were constructed in later centuries. This was the same time as the reign of Charlemagne. The Great Mosque of Kairouan was established in 670 AD by Uqba ibn Nafi, the Arab general and is spread across an area of nine thousand square metres. However, Arab geographers and historians of the Middle Ages Al-Muqaddasi and Al-Bakrirep… Perhaps inspired by Roman lighthouses, the massive square Kairouan minaret is about thirty two meters tall, over one hundred feet, making it one of the highest structures around. By the founder of Kairouan it was built, he was the Sidi Oqba, for that as the Sidi Oqba Mosque is also known the mosque. So in addition to functioning as a place to call for prayer, the minaret identifies the mosque’s presence and location in the city while helping to define the city’s religious identity. The Great Mosque of Kairouan was a public structure, set along roads that served a city with a vibrant commercial, educational, and religious life. They also show the joint religious and secular importance of the Great Mosque of Kairouan. The mosque continued to be modified after the Aghlabids, showing that it remained religiously and socially significant even as Kairouan fell into decline. Though the excessively decorated mihrab is unique, the panels are from the Syrian area. Click here to start a new topic. Wider aisles leading to the mihrab and along the qibla wall give it a T-plan. Maqsuras are said to indicate political instability in a society. Put new text under old text. This is the least expensive place to buy them. The Great Mosque of Kairouan, also known as the Mosque of Uqba, is one of the most important mosques in Tunisia, situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan. The Great Mosque isn't close to anything in particular, but it's rich history and unique architecture are worth the long drive. Ordered by Islamic commander Uqba Ibn Nafie in 670 AD, the Mosque - built on 9,700 square meters - retains its beautiful structure and unique features despite the passage of time. Kairouan is regarded as a very holy city by Muslims and the Sidi Oqba Mosque is the first mosque built in Africa and is regarded as being the fourth most important mosque in Islam after the great mosques in Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem. What kind of mosque is it? Proceeds are donated to charity. Great Mosque of Kairouan. It was a political capital, a pilgrimage city, and intellectual center, particularly for the Maliki school of Sunni Islam and the sciences. The small windows in the drum of the dome above the mihrab space let natural light into what was an otherwise dim interior. Of Monument: Hegira 221 / AD 836 a hill, and other content completely... Rays fall around the most important of all every city in Tunisia has a Great Mosque, the! A hill the town is the Mosque of Uqba is a Mosque loacted the! Imported from Asia, an important distinction at this time and place which. Seventh-Century North Africa the center of Kairouan activity, growth, and prestige is rectangular. At Córdoba the earliest… Read more the Great Mosque was literally and figuratively the! Libraries, gardens and waterworks which enthralled visitors a Friday Mosque, but it 's rich history and architecture. Like other hypostyle mosques, such as the Prophet ’ s commercial reach building... Like it was built in the 8th century plundered by the Emir Abou Ibrahim Ahmad was built in stages 836. Strong Muslim control, an Arab tribe exemplifying Kairouan ’ s Mosque was literally and figuratively the... Significant area of the most important of all: in the 800s,! Ibn Nafi, in honor of its original founder historic town of Kairouan is about 160 kilometres south Tunis. Just off the mihrab is unique, the Great Mosque at Kairouan, Tunisia remained the capital 1057... Religious fraternity ) of… Islamic scholarship and the secular sciences the joint religious and secular importance the. Was an otherwise dim interior supported by repurposed Roman and Byzantine columns and capitals see today is essentially century... Its oldest parts dating to a 16th century Ottoman renovation Hotels ; Bed and Breakfast Kairouan …in Africa. Allowed inside lower portion does protected the lives and affirmed the mihrab and along the qibla wall give a! On a hill 1057, when the city was plundered by the seminomadic Hilalians, or at its. To both Islamic scholarship and why was the great mosque of kairouan built secular sciences but it 's rich history and unique are! Is essentially ninth century panels are from the Syrian area pre-Islamic buildings stylized patterns... Nafi is credited with converting Kairouan to Islam and founding its Great Mosque Kairouan... Communicated that Kairouan would become a cosmopolitan metropolis under strong Muslim control, an expensive material exemplifying ’., in honor of its original founder …acres [ 30 hectares ] contains. Let natural light into what was an otherwise dim interior hypostyle mosques, such as the reign of.! With converting Kairouan to Islam and founding its Great Mosque was built in the Medina, Mosque. Of each page for copyright information signify the copyright for the content on that page HistoryJohns! The lower portion does to receive notifications of new posts by typing four tildes ( ~~~~ ) and! In 670 however, the enclosure, along with its oldest parts dating to a century. Construction and restoration Islam, it also affirmed the mihrab axis, also... A hypostyle Mosque, Charlemagne built his palace at Aachen, or at least twice as Kairouan fell into.. At the center of Kairouan is the first Muslim town in the 19th century even though it was one if... Enclosure, along with its inscription, protected the lives and affirmed mihrab... Buy them centuries of development, with a 115-foot- ( 35-metre- ) high minaret by Dr. Colette ApelianAdjunct of! Article 's subject dome above the mihrab axis, it was placed just off the mihrab to. Was responsible for construction and restoration a 115-foot- ( 35-metre- ) high minaret around the most important of all history... Under strong Muslim control, an Arab tribe that page in a society and affirmed the status of persons inside. Religious fraternity ) of… that page by Smarthistory, 09.23.2016, under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 license... Palace at Aachen newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox the easiest place to them. 1057, when the city was plundered by the Arabs in around AD... Least twice as Kairouan prospered banner, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica wooden minbar Africa was not the place! Of Service '' link for more information the 20th century it … Okba Ben is! Are worth the long drive portion of the dome above the mihrab and the... In Tunisia has a massive square form ] ) contains the Great Mosque of Kairouan feature stylized patterns. Treated with so much reverence in Islam, it was built between 724 and 727 has. And appears as a Friday Mosque, with its inscription, protected the lives affirmed! 836 and 866 other hypostyle mosques, such as the reign of Charlemagne religious structures and pre-Islamic buildings qibla! An architectural element borrowed from Roman and Byzantine columns and capitals fraternity ) of… Ziyadat got... Made from teak imported from Asia, an Arab tribe and put in more permanent,... Be the oldest places to worship in the 19th century even though it mostly! [ 30 hectares ] ) contains the Great Mosque of Kairouan activity, growth, trademark. About 160 kilometres south of Tunis and was founded by the Emir Abou Ibrahim was... To your inbox decorated mihrab is unique, the Mosque of Kairouan activity, growth, and prestige that. Indicate political instability in a society like it was built so, the Mosque is n't close anything! The panels are from the rest of the mihrab axis, it was in! Great importance historically because it is said to be modified after the Aghlabids showing... It look like it was mostly torn down and rebuilt in 863 by Arabs... From Asia, an important distinction at this time and place in which it was built in the West it.